Kwayoyin ƙira: Yin amfani da ilimin halitta na roba don gyara lambar halittar mu

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Kwayoyin ƙira: Yin amfani da ilimin halitta na roba don gyara lambar halittar mu

Kwayoyin ƙira: Yin amfani da ilimin halitta na roba don gyara lambar halittar mu

Babban taken rubutu
Ci gaba na baya-bayan nan a cikin ilimin halitta na roba yana nufin sauran ƴan shekaru ne kawai suka rage har sai mun iya canza tsarin halittar sel ɗinmu—ko mafi kyau ko mara kyau.
    • About the Author:
    • Sunan marubuci
      Quantumrun Haskaka
    • Nuwamba 12, 2021

    Buga rubutu

    Ilimin halitta na roba ya ba da damar injiniyan kayan aikin wucin gadi cikin sel masu rai. Filin wani yanki ne na ilmin kwayoyin halitta, kimiyyar kwamfuta, da sinadarai. Babban burin ilimin halitta na roba sun haɗa da koyon yadda ake gina ƙwayoyin halitta masu iya aiki daga karce, haɓaka fahimtarmu game da sinadarai da ke sa rayuwa ta yiwu, da haɓaka hulɗar mu tare da tsarin halitta don mafi girman fa'ida ga ɗan adam. 

    Mahallin ƙirar ƙira

    Masana kimiyya sun shafe shekaru da yawa suna ƙoƙarin kera rayuwa. A cikin 2016 sun ƙirƙiri tantanin halitta na roba daga karce. Abin takaici, tantanin halitta yana da yanayin girma maras tabbas-wanda ya sa ya zama da wahala a yi nazari sosai. Koyaya, a cikin 2021 masana kimiyya sun sami nasarar nuna wasu kwayoyin halitta guda bakwai waɗanda ke haifar da ci gaban ƙwayar sel - fahimtar waɗannan kwayoyin halitta yana da mahimmanci ga masana kimiyya don ƙirƙirar ƙwayoyin roba. 
     
    A halin yanzu, wasu ci gaban kimiyya sun ba da damar canza sel masu wanzuwa don ɗaukar "ayyukan ƙira." A zahiri, ilimin halitta na roba na iya sa waɗannan sel su sami sabbin halaye ta hanyar canza hanyoyin haɗin furotin. 

    Haɗin furotin yana da mahimmanci don haɓakar salon salula da gyare-gyare. Symbiogenesis shine ka'idar da aka yarda da ita ta yadda sel ke aiki a yau. Ka'idar ta yi imanin cewa lokacin da kwayoyin cuta suka mamaye juna shekaru biliyan biyu da suka wuce, kwayoyin halitta ba su narke ba. A maimakon haka, sun kafa dangantaka mai amfani da juna, ta samar da kwayar eukaryotic. Tantanin halitta eukaryotic yana da hadadden injin gina furotin wanda zai iya gina kowane furotin da aka sanya a cikin kwayoyin halittar tantanin halitta. 

    Masanan kimiyyar Jamus sun shigar da kwayoyin halitta na roba wadanda za su iya canza kwayoyin halittar kwayar halitta zuwa lambar sabbin sunadaran. Ma'ana tantanin halitta da aka kirkira yanzu zai iya samar da sunadaran sunadaran ba tare da wani canji a cikin ayyukansa na yau da kullun ba. 

    Tasirin Rushewa

    Idan bincike kan masana'antar tantanin halitta da gyare-gyare ya ci gaba da samar da sakamako, harkokin kasuwanci na iya tsalle da damar yin kasuwancin sel masu ƙira. Irin waɗannan sel na iya yuwuwar samun kyawawan halaye da aka gyara a ciki, kamar ikon yin photosynthesize. Ƙirƙirar sel masu ƙirƙira na iya haifar da sabon filin tare da haɓaka buƙatu mai ƙarfi don sarrafa kayan aikin mu na kwayoyin halitta. Abin baƙin ciki shine, ƙwayoyin ɗan adam sun fi rikitarwa fiye da ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda masana kimiyya suka yi nazari ya zuwa yanzu. Don haka, da yuwuwar yin amfani da sel masu ƙira da yawa za a amince da su don amintaccen amfani da ɗan adam nan da 2030s. 

    Aikace-aikace na sel masu zane 

    Kwayoyin ƙira na iya yin juyin juya hali: 

    • Fannin noma, baiwa masana kimiyya damar injiniyoyin amfanin gona masu jure wa kwari ko daidaita yawan amfanin gona.
    • Masana'antar jin daɗin rayuwa, yana ba da damar injiniyan ƙwayoyin ɗan adam don zama rigakafi ga tasirin kwaskwarima na tsufa. 
    • Maganin cututtukan da ba za a iya warkewa ba ta hanyar horar da sel masu zane don samar da sunadaran da suka ɓace a cikin cututtuka kamar cystic fibrosis.
    • Kiwon lafiya ta hanyar ƙirƙirar sel masu ƙira tare da ƙarin rigakafi wanda zai iya ba da kariya nan take daga cututtuka da yawa a lokaci guda.

    Tambayoyi don yin tsokaci akai

    • Wadanne ƙarin aikace-aikace za ku iya tunanin don ƙirar ƙira a cikin masana'antu daban-daban? 
    • Kuna tsammanin akwai aikace-aikace na sel masu zane a cikin neman rashin mutuwa?