AI imafulumizitsa kupezeka kwasayansi: Wasayansi yemwe samagona

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AI imafulumizitsa kupezeka kwasayansi: Wasayansi yemwe samagona

AI imafulumizitsa kupezeka kwasayansi: Wasayansi yemwe samagona

Mutu waung'ono mawu
Nzeru zopangapanga ndi kuphunzira pamakina (AI/ML) zikugwiritsidwa ntchito pokonza deta mwachangu, zomwe zikupangitsa kuti sayansi ipite patsogolo.
    • Author:
    • Dzina la wolemba
      Quantumrun Foresight
    • December 12, 2023

    Chidule cha chidziwitso

    AI, makamaka nsanja ngati ChatGPT, ikufulumizitsa kutulukira kwasayansi popanga makina osanthula deta ndi kupanga ma hypothesis. Kutha kwake kukonza zambiri zasayansi ndikofunikira kuti zinthu zipite patsogolo monga chemistry ndi sayansi yazinthu. AI idachita gawo lofunikira kwambiri popanga katemera wa COVID-19, kuwonetsa kuthekera kwake pakufufuza mwachangu komanso mogwirizana. Kuyika ndalama m'makompyuta apamwamba kwambiri, monga projekiti ya Frontier Department of Energy ku US, ikuwonetsa kuthekera kwa AI pakuyendetsa patsogolo kwasayansi pazaumoyo ndi mphamvu. Kuphatikizika kwa AI mu kafukufuku kumalimbikitsa mgwirizano wamagulu osiyanasiyana komanso kuyesa kwachangu kwamalingaliro, ngakhale kumabweretsanso mafunso okhudzana ndi chikhalidwe komanso nzeru za AI ngati wofufuza mnzake.

    AI imafulumizitsa zopezeka zasayansi

    Sayansi, mwa iyo yokha, ndi njira yolenga; ofufuza akuyenera kukulitsa malingaliro awo ndi malingaliro awo nthawi zonse kuti apange mankhwala atsopano, kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala, ndi zatsopano zamakampani. Komabe, ubongo wa munthu uli ndi malire ake. Ndiponsotu, pali mamolekyu ochuluka kwambiri kuposa maatomu m’chilengedwe chonse. Palibe amene angayese zonse. Kufunika kofufuza ndikuyesa kusiyanasiyana kosawerengeka kwa kuyesa kwasayansi komwe kwapangitsa asayansi kupitiliza kugwiritsa ntchito zida zatsopano zowonjezerera luso lawo lofufuzira-chida chaposachedwa kwambiri kukhala luntha lochita kupanga.
     
    Kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kwa AI pakutulukira kwasayansi kumayendetsedwa (2023) ndi maukonde akuzama a neural ndi machitidwe opanga AI omwe amatha kupanga chidziwitso cha sayansi mochulukira kuchokera kuzinthu zonse zosindikizidwa pamutu wakutiwakuti. Mwachitsanzo, nsanja za AI zopanga monga ChatGPT zimatha kusanthula ndi kupanga zolemba zambiri zasayansi, kuthandiza akatswiri azamankhwala kufufuza feteleza watsopano wopangira. Makina a AI amatha kusanthula nkhokwe zambiri za ma patent, mapepala amaphunziro, ndi zofalitsa, kupanga zongopeka ndikuwongolera njira zofufuzira.

    Mofananamo, AI imatha kugwiritsa ntchito zomwe imasanthula kupanga malingaliro oyambilira kuti afutukule kusaka kwa mapangidwe atsopano a mamolekyu, pamlingo womwe wasayansi payekha angaone kuti sizingatheke kufananiza. Zida za AI zotere zikaphatikizidwa ndi makompyuta amtsogolo amtsogolo zitha kutengera mamolekyu atsopano kuti athe kuthana ndi vuto lililonse potengera chiphunzitso chodalirika kwambiri. Chiphunzitsocho chidzawunikidwa pogwiritsa ntchito mayeso a labotale odziyimira pawokha, pomwe njira ina yowunikira zotsatira, kuzindikira mipata kapena zolakwika, ndikuchotsa zatsopano. Mafunso atsopano akabuka, ndiye kuti ndondomekoyi idzayambanso m'njira yabwino. Muzochitika zotere, asayansi amayang'anira njira zovuta zasayansi ndi zoyeserera m'malo mongoyesa payekhapayekha.

    Zosokoneza

    Chitsanzo chimodzi cha momwe AI yagwiritsidwira ntchito kufulumizitsa zomwe asayansi apeza chinali kupanga katemera wa COVID-19. Mgwirizano wa mabungwe a 87, kuyambira ku maphunziro mpaka ku makampani opanga zamakono, alola ofufuza padziko lonse lapansi kuti apeze makompyuta apamwamba (zida zokhala ndi makompyuta othamanga kwambiri omwe amatha kuyendetsa ma algorithms a ML) kuti agwiritse ntchito AI kuti afufuze deta ndi maphunziro omwe alipo. Chotsatira chake ndikusinthanitsa kwaulele kwa malingaliro ndi zotsatira zoyesera, kupeza kwathunthu kwaukadaulo wapamwamba, komanso mwachangu, mgwirizano wolondola. Kuphatikiza apo, mabungwe aboma akuzindikira kuthekera kwa AI kupanga matekinoloje atsopano mwachangu. Mwachitsanzo, US Department of Energy (DOE) yapempha Congress kuti ipange bajeti yofikira USD $4 biliyoni pazaka 10 kuti agwiritse ntchito matekinoloje a AI kuti apititse patsogolo zomwe asayansi atulukira. Ndalama izi zikuphatikizapo "exascale" (yokhoza kuwerengera zambiri) makompyuta apamwamba.

    Mu Meyi 2022, DOE idalamula kampani yaukadaulo ya Hewlett Packard (HP) kuti ipange makompyuta apamwamba kwambiri, Frontier. Makompyuta apamwamba amayembekezeredwa kuthetsa mawerengedwe a ML mpaka 10x mwachangu kuposa makompyuta apamwamba amasiku ano ndikupeza mayankho kumavuto omwe ndi ovuta 8x. Bungweli likufuna kuyang'ana kwambiri zomwe zapezedwa pa matenda a khansa ndi matenda, mphamvu zongowonjezwdwa, komanso zida zokhazikika. 

    DOE yakhala ikuthandizira ndalama zambiri zofufuza zasayansi, kuphatikiza zophwanya ma atomu ndi kutsata ma genome, zomwe zapangitsa kuti bungweli lizitha kuyang'anira nkhokwe zazikulu. Bungweli likuyembekeza kuti tsiku lina izi zitha kubweretsa zopambana zomwe zitha kupititsa patsogolo kupanga mphamvu ndi chisamaliro chaumoyo, pakati pa ena. Kuchokera pakupanga malamulo atsopano achilengedwe kupita kuzinthu zatsopano zamakina, AI/ML ikuyembekezeka kuchita ntchito yovuta kwambiri yomwe ingachotse zosadziwika bwino ndikuwonjezera mwayi wochita bwino pa kafukufuku wasayansi.

    Zotsatira za AI yofulumira kupeza kwasayansi

    Zotsatira zakuchulukira kwa AI yofulumira kutulukira kwa sayansi zingaphatikizepo: 

    • Kuthandizira kuphatikizika kofulumira kwa chidziwitso pamagawo osiyanasiyana asayansi, kulimbikitsa njira zothetsera mavuto ovuta. Ubwinowu ukhoza kulimbikitsa mgwirizano wamagulu osiyanasiyana, kuphatikiza zidziwitso zochokera m'magawo monga biology, physics, ndi sayansi yamakompyuta.
    • AI ikugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati wothandizira pazantchito zonse, kusanthula ma dataset ambiri mwachangu kwambiri kuposa anthu, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti pakhale m'badwo wofulumira komanso wotsimikizira. Kukonzekera kwa ntchito zofufuza nthawi zonse kudzamasula asayansi kuti ayang'ane pazovuta zovuta ndikusanthula mayeso ndi zotsatira zoyesera.
    • Ofufuza omwe amaika ndalama popereka luso la AI kuti apange mafunso awoawo ndi mayankho a mafunso asayansi m'magawo osiyanasiyana ophunzirira.
    • Kupititsa patsogolo kufufuza kwa mlengalenga monga AI kudzathandizira kukonza deta ya zakuthambo, kuzindikira zinthu zakuthambo, ndi kukonzekera maulendo.
    • Asayansi ena akuumirira kuti mnzake wa AI kapena wochita nawo kafukufuku ayenera kupatsidwa zilolezo zanzeru komanso mbiri yofalitsa.
    • Mabungwe ambiri aboma omwe amaika ndalama m'makompyuta apamwamba, kupangitsa mwayi wochulukirachulukira wopita ku yunivesite, mabungwe aboma, ndi ma laboratories asayansi azigawo zapadera.
    • Kukula mwachangu kwa mankhwala osokoneza bongo komanso kupita patsogolo kwa sayansi ya zinthu, chemistry, ndi physics, zomwe zitha kupangitsa kuti pakhale zopanga zambiri zamtsogolo.

    Mafunso oti muyankhepo

    • Ngati ndinu wasayansi kapena wofufuza, kodi bungwe lanu likugwiritsa ntchito bwanji AI pofufuza?
    • Kodi zowopsa zomwe zingakhalepo zokhala ndi AI ngati ofufuza anzawo ndi ziti?