CRISPR ka sarreeya bini'aadantinimada: Dhammaystirka ugu dambeyntii suurtagal ma yahay oo ma yahay mid anshax leh?

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Sumcadda Sawirka
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CRISPR ka sarreeya bini'aadantinimada: Dhammaystirka ugu dambeyntii suurtagal ma yahay oo ma yahay mid anshax leh?

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CRISPR ka sarreeya bini'aadantinimada: Dhammaystirka ugu dambeyntii suurtagal ma yahay oo ma yahay mid anshax leh?

Qoraalka ciwaan hoosaadka
Horumarkii dhawaa ee injineernimada hidde-sidaha ayaa mugdi gelinaya khadka u dhexeeya daawaynta iyo kobcinta in ka badan sidii hore.
    • About the Author:
    • Magaca qoraaga
      Quantumrun Aragtida Saadaasha
    • January 2, 2023

    Qoraal ku dheji

    Dib-u-habaynta CRISPR-Cas9 ee 2014 si si sax ah loo beegsado loona "hagaajiyo" ama loo tafatiro taxane DNA oo gaar ah ayaa wax ka beddelay beerta tafatirka hidda-socodka. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, horumarkan ayaa sidoo kale dhaliyay su'aalo ku saabsan akhlaaqda iyo anshaxa iyo inta ay tahay in aadanuhu aado marka ay tafatirayaan hiddo-wadaha.

    CRISPR macnaha guud ee aadanaha ka sarreeya

    CRISPR waa koox taxane DNA ah oo laga helo bakteeriyada kuwaas oo awood u siinaya inay "jaraan" fayraska dilaaga ah ee soo gala nidaamyadooda. Marka lagu daro enzyme loo yaqaan Cas9, CRISPR waxaa loo isticmaalaa hage ahaan si loo beegsado qaybo DNA-da qaarkood si meesha looga saaro. Marka la ogaado, saynisyahannadu waxay adeegsadeen CRISPR si ay wax uga beddelaan hiddo-wadaha si ay meesha uga saaraan naafanimada lagu dhasho ee nolosha khatar gelinaysa sida cudurka unugga sickle. Horaantii 2015, Shiinuhu wuxuu horeyba u tafatiray bukaannada kansarka iyagoo ka saaraya unugyada, iyaga oo beddelaya CRISPR, oo dib ugu celinaya jirka si ay ula dagaallamaan kansarka. 

    Sannadkii 2018-kii, Shiinuhu waxa uu hab-dhiseed ahaan u tafatiray in ka badan 80 qof iyada oo Maraykanku isku diyaarinayo in uu bilaabo daraasadihii tijaabada ahaa ee CRISPR-kii ugu horreeyay. Sannadka 2019, cilmiga noolaha ee Shiinaha He Jianku ayaa ku dhawaaqay inuu injineeriyay bukaannadii ugu horreeyay ee "U adkaysta HIV", iyagoo ah gabdho mataano ah, taasoo dhalisay dood ku saabsan halka xadka laga soo saari karo goobta wax-ka-beddelka hiddaha.

    Saamaynta qaska

    Saynis yahanada intooda badan ayaa lagu soo waramayaa in ay u maleynayaan in tafatirka hidde-sidaha ay tahay in loo isticmaalo kaliya hababka aan la dhaxli karin ee lagama maarmaanka ah, sida daaweynta cudurrada aan dhamaadka lahayn ee jira. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, tafatirka hidda-sidaha ayaa laga yaabaa inay horseeddo ama suurtogal ka dhigto in la abuuro dad ka sarreeya iyadoo la beddelayo hiddo-wadaha horraantii heerka embriyaha. Khubarada qaar ayaa ku doodaya in caqabadaha jireed iyo maskaxeed ee ay ka midka yihiin dhego la’aanta, indho la’aanta, autismka, iyo niyad-jabka ay inta badan dhiiri galiyeen korriinka dabeecadda, dareenka, iyo xitaa nooc ka mid ah garaadka hal-abuurka. Lama garanayo waxa ku dhici doona bulshada haddii ilma kasta hiddo-wadaha la dhammaystiri karo lagana saari karo dhammaan “cilad-darrada” ka hor dhalashadooda. 

    Qiimaha sarreeya ee tafatirka hidde-sidaha waxa laga yaabaa inuu ka dhigo oo keliya inay heli karaan kuwa hodanka ah mustaqbalka, kuwaas oo markaa laga yaabo inay galaan tafatirka hidda-wadaha si ay u abuuraan carruur "kaamilo ah". Carruurtan, oo laga yaabo inay dheer yihiin ama leeyihiin IQ sare, ayaa laga yaabaa inay matalaan dabaqad bulsho oo cusub, taas oo sii kala qaybinaysa bulshada sababtoo ah sinnaan la'aanta. Isboortiga tartanka ayaa laga yaabaa inay daabacaan qawaaniinta mustaqbalka kuwaas oo xaddidaya tartamada kaliya "ciyaaraha dabiiciga ah" ama u abuura tartamo cusub ciyaartoyda hidde-engineered. Cudurada la iska dhaxlo qaarkood ayaa laga yaabaa inay si sii kordheysa u daaweeyaan dhalmada ka hor, taasoo hoos u dhigeysa culeyska guud ee kharashka nidaamka daryeelka caafimaadka dadweynaha iyo kuwa gaarka ah. 

    Saamaynta CRISPR loo isticmaalo in lagu abuuro "bini'aadminimo"

    Saamaynta ballaadhan ee tignoolajiyada CRISPR ee loo isticmaalo in lagu saxo hiddo-wadaha ka hor iyo suurtogalka ka dib dhalashada waxa ka mid noqon kara:

    • Suuq koraya oo loogu talagalay dhallaanka naqshadeeye iyo "kor u qaadis" kale sida exoskeletons ee curyaaminta iyo qalabka maskaxda lagu dhejiyo si kor loogu qaado xusuusta.
    • Kharashka oo yaraada iyo isticmaalka korodhka baadhista uurjiifka horumarsan ee u ogolaanaya waalidiinta inay iska soo ridaan uurjiifka la ogaaday inay halis sare ugu jiraan cudurro halis ah ama naafo maskaxeed iyo mid jidheed. 
    • Heerarka cusub ee caalamiga ah iyo xeerarka lagu go'aaminayo sida iyo goorta CRISPR loo isticmaali karo iyo cidda go'aansan karta in hiddo-wadaha qofka la tafatiro.
    • Ka takhalusidda cudurrada la iska dhaxlo ee barkadaha hidde-sidayaasha qoyska, si dadka loo siiyo faa'iidooyin daryeel caafimaad oo la xoojiyay.
    • Waddamada ayaa si tartiib tartiib ah u galaya tartanka hubka hidde-sidaha bartamaha qarniga, halkaas oo dawladuhu ay maalgeliyaan horumarinta hiddaha dhalmada ka hor ee barnaamijyada si loo hubiyo in jiilalka mustaqbalka ay si wanaagsan u dhasheen. Waa maxay macnaha "fiican" waxaa lagu go'aamin doonaa isbeddelada caadooyinka dhaqameed ee soo baxaya tobannaan sano ee soo socda, waddamo kala duwan.
    • Dhimashada suurtagalka ah ee dadweynaha oo dhan ee cudurrada laga hortagi karo iyo hoos u dhaca tartiib tartiib ah ee kharashka daryeelka caafimaadka qaranka.

    Su'aalo aad ka faalooto

    • Ma kula tahay in embriyaha lagu sameeyo hidde ahaan si looga hortago noocyada naafada?
    • Ma doonaysaa inaad bixiso kharashka horumarinta hidda-socodka?