I-Cloning and synthesizing virus: Indlela esheshayo yokuvimbela izifo eziwubhadane ezizayo

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I-Cloning and synthesizing virus: Indlela esheshayo yokuvimbela izifo eziwubhadane ezizayo

I-Cloning and synthesizing virus: Indlela esheshayo yokuvimbela izifo eziwubhadane ezizayo

Umbhalo wesihlokwana
Ososayensi baphindaphinda i-DNA yamagciwane elebhu ukuze baqonde kangcono ukuthi asakazeka kanjani nokuthi angamiswa kanjani.
    • About the Author:
    • Igama lomlobi
      I-Quantumrun Foresight
    • September 29, 2022

    Thumela umbhalo

    Ucwaningo ku-virology (ukufunda ngamagciwane kanye nezifo ezibangelwa amagciwane) ngokuvamile luqala ngokwakha kabusha nokuguqula ama-genomes amagciwane abangela izifo. Lezi zivivinyo zofuzo zibalulekile ekufundeni indlela yegciwane lokutheleleka, ukuthi lisakazeka kanjani, kanye nokwelashwa okungase kube khona kanye nemithi yokugoma.

    Ukuhlanganisa kanye nokuhlanganiswa kwamagciwane umongo

    Izifo ezibangelwa amagciwane bezilokhu ziwusongo kubantu. Lezi zifo eziyingozi kakhulu ziye zabangela ukuhlupheka okukhulu kuwo wonke umlando, ngokuvamile zidlala indima ebalulekile emiphumeleni yezimpi nezinye izenzakalo zomhlaba. Ama-akhawunti wokuqubuka kwegciwane, njengengxibongo, isimungumungwane, i-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), i-SARS-CoV (severe acute acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), igciwane lomkhuhlane wango-1918, nezinye, abhala imiphumela edabukisayo yalezi zifo. Lokhu kuqubuka kwegciwane kuholele ekutheni ososayensi emhlabeni wonke bahlanganise futhi bahlanganise amagciwane ukuze bawahlonze ngokushesha futhi bakhiqize imigomo esebenzayo kanye nama-antidote. 

    Lapho ubhubhane lwe-COVID-19 luqubuka ngo-2020, abacwaningi bomhlaba wonke basebenzisa i-cloning ukuze bahlole ukwakheka kofuzo lwaleli gciwane. Ososayensi bangase bathunge izingcezu ze-DNA ukuze ziphindaphinde i-genome yegciwane futhi bazenze amagciwane. Nokho, le ndlela ayilungele wonke amagciwane—ikakhulukazi ama-coronavirus. Ngenxa yokuthi ama-coronavirus anama-genome amakhulu, lokhu kwenza kube nzima ngamabhaktheriya ukuthi aziphindaphinde ngempumelelo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izingxenye ze-genome zingase zingazinzi noma zibe nobuthi kubhaktheriya—nakuba isizathu singakaqondwa ngokugcwele. 

    Ngokuphambene, ukuhlanganisa nokuhlanganisa amagciwane kuthuthukisa imizamo ye-biological warfare (BW). Impi yebhayoloji idedela ama-microorganisms noma ubuthi obuhloselwe ukubulala, ukukhubaza, noma ukwesabisa isitha kuyilapho kucekela phansi umnotho wezwe ngamanani amancane. Lezi zinambuzane zibhekwa njengezikhali zembubhiso ngoba ngisho nenani elincane lingase libulale abantu abaningi. 

    Umthelela ophazamisayo

    Ngo-2020, emjahweni wokuthuthukisa umuthi wokugomela noma wokwelapha i-COVID-19, ososayensi baseNyuvesi yaseBern ezinze eSwitzerland baphendukela ethuluzini elingajwayelekile: imvubelo. Ngokungafani namanye amagciwane, i-SARS-CoV-2 ayikwazi ukukhuliswa kumaseli omuntu elebhu, okwenza kube inselele ukufunda. Kodwa leli qembu lenze indlela esheshayo nephumelelayo yokuhlanganisa nokuhlanganisa leli gciwane lisebenzisa ama-yeast cells. Inqubo, echazwe ephepheni elishicilelwe kujenali yesayensi i-Nature, yasebenzisa i-transformation-associated recombination (TAR) ukuze ihlanganise izingcezu ze-DNA ezimfushane zibe ama-chromosome aphelele kumaseli imvubelo. Le nqubo ivumele ososayensi ukuthi baphindaphinde ngokushesha futhi kalula i-genome yegciwane. Indlela isetshenziswe ukuhlanganisa uhlobo lwegciwane olufaka iphrotheni yentatheli ye-fluorescent, okuvumela ososayensi ukuthi bahlole izidakamizwa ezingaba namandla abo okuvimba leli gciwane.

    Nakuba lokhu kutholakala kunikeza izinzuzo eziningi kunezindlela zendabuko zokuhlanganisa, futhi kunezingozi. I-Cloning virus kwi-yeast ingaholela ekusabalaleni kwezifo ze-yeast kubantu, futhi kunengozi yokuthi igciwane elakhiwe lingaphunyuka elebhu. Noma kunjalo, ososayensi bakholelwa ukuthi inqubo yokwenza i-cloning inikeza ithuluzi elinamandla lokuphindaphinda amagciwane ngokushesha kanye nokwakha izindlela zokwelapha ezisebenzayo noma imigomo. Ukwengeza, abacwaningi baphenya ukuqaliswa kwe-TAR ukuhlanganisa amanye amagciwane, okuhlanganisa i-MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) ne-Zika.

    Imithelela ye-cloning kanye nokuhlanganiswa kwamagciwane

    Imithelela ebanzi ye-cloning kanye nama-synthesizing virus ingabandakanya: 

    • Ukuqhubeka nocwaningo ngamagciwane asafufusa, okwenza ohulumeni bakwazi ukulungiselela izifo eziwumshayabhuqe ezingaba khona noma izifo eziwubhadane.
    • I-Biopharma esheshisa ukuthuthukiswa kwezidakamizwa nokukhiqizwa ngokumelene nezifo ezibangelwa amagciwane.
    • Ukusetshenziswa okwandayo kwe-virus cloning ukukhomba izikhali zebhayoloji. Kodwa-ke, ezinye izinhlangano zingenza okufanayo ukuze zenze ubuthi obungcono bamakhemikhali nawemvelo.
    • Ohulumeni baya ngokuya becindezelwa ukuthi baphumele obala mayelana nezifundo zabo ze-virology ezixhaswe ngumphakathi kanye nokuphindaphinda okwenziwa kumalebhu abo, okuhlanganisa nezinhlelo zezimo eziphuthumayo zokuthi aphunyuke nini/uma la magciwane.
    • Ukutshalwa kwezimali okukhulu komphakathi nokwangasese ocwaningweni lwe-virus cloning. Lezi zinhlelo zingase ziholele ekwandeni kwemisebenzi kulo mkhakha.

    Imibuzo ongaphawula ngayo

    • Ucabanga ukuthi amagciwane e-cloning angasheshisa kanjani izifundo ngezifo ezibangelwa amagciwane?
    • Yiziphi ezinye izingozi ezingaba khona zokukhiqiza amagciwane elebhu?

    Izinkomba zokuqonda

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