Kan-buƙata kwayoyin halitta: Kataloji na samuwan kwayoyin halitta

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Kan-buƙata kwayoyin halitta: Kataloji na samuwan kwayoyin halitta

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Kan-buƙata kwayoyin halitta: Kataloji na samuwan kwayoyin halitta

Babban taken rubutu
Kamfanonin kimiyyar rayuwa suna amfani da ilimin halitta na roba da ci gaban injiniyan kwayoyin halitta don ƙirƙirar kowane kwayar halitta idan an buƙata.
    • About the Author:
    • Sunan marubuci
      Quantumrun Haskaka
    • Disamba 22, 2022

    Buga rubutu

    Ilimin halitta na roba shine kimiyyar rayuwa mai tasowa wanda ke amfani da ka'idodin injiniya ga ilimin halitta don ƙirƙirar sabbin sassa da tsarin. A cikin binciken magunguna, ilmin halitta na roba yana da yuwuwar kawo sauyi akan jiyya ta hanyar ƙirƙirar ƙwayoyin da ake buƙata.

    Mahallin kwayoyin buƙatu

    Injiniyan ƙwayar cuta yana ƙyale masana kimiyya suyi amfani da sel injiniyoyi don ƙirƙirar sabbin kwayoyin halitta masu ɗorewa, kamar sabbin ƙwayoyin halitta ko magunguna masu hana kansa. Tare da dama da dama da aikin injiniya na rayuwa ke bayarwa, an dauke shi daya daga cikin "Top Ten Emerging Technologies" ta Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arziki ta Duniya a cikin 2016. Bugu da ƙari, ilimin kimiyyar masana'antu ana sa ran zai taimaka wajen bunkasa bioproducts da kayan da za a iya sabuntawa, inganta amfanin gona, da kuma ba da damar sababbin abubuwa. aikace-aikace na biomedical.

    Maƙasudin ilimin halitta na roba ko na lab da aka ƙirƙira shine a yi amfani da ƙa'idodin injiniya don haɓaka aikin injiniyan kwayoyin halitta da na rayuwa. Ilimin halitta na roba kuma ya ƙunshi ayyuka marasa ƙarfi, kamar gyare-gyaren kwayoyin halitta waɗanda ke kawar da sauro masu ɗauke da zazzabin cizon sauro ko ingantattun microbiomes waɗanda za su iya maye gurbin takin mai magani. Wannan horo yana haɓaka da sauri, yana goyan bayan ci gaba a cikin haɓakar haɓakar haɓakawa (tsarin tantance kayan shafa ko halaye), haɓaka jerin DNA da haɓaka ƙarfin haɓakawa, da gyaran ƙwayoyin halittar CRISPR.

    Yayin da waɗannan fasahohin ke ci gaba, haka ma ƙarfin masu bincike don ƙirƙirar ƙwayoyin cuta da ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda ake buƙata don kowane nau'in bincike. Musamman, koyan na'ura (ML) kayan aiki ne mai inganci wanda zai iya hanzarta samar da kwayoyin halitta ta hanyar tsinkayar yadda tsarin halitta zai kasance. Ta hanyar fahimtar alamu a cikin bayanan gwaji, ML na iya ba da tsinkaya ba tare da buƙatar fahimtar yadda yake aiki ba.

    Tasiri mai rudani

    Kwayoyin da ake buƙata suna nuna mafi girman yuwuwar gano magunguna. Makasudin miyagun ƙwayoyi shine kwayar halitta mai tushen furotin wanda ke taka rawa wajen haifar da alamun cututtuka. Magunguna suna aiki akan waɗannan kwayoyin don canzawa ko dakatar da ayyukan da ke haifar da alamun cututtuka. Don nemo magunguna masu yuwuwa, masana kimiyya sukan yi amfani da hanyar baya, wanda ke nazarin halayen da aka sani don sanin waɗanne kwayoyin halitta ke cikin wannan aikin. Ana kiran wannan dabarar deconvolution. Yana buƙatar hadaddun nazarin sinadarai da ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta don tantance waɗanne kwayoyin halitta ke yin aikin da ake so.

    Ilimin halitta na roba a cikin binciken magunguna yana baiwa masana kimiyya damar tsara sabbin kayan aikin don bincika hanyoyin cututtuka akan matakin kwayoyin. Hanya ɗaya don yin hakan ita ce ta hanyar zayyana da'irori na roba, waɗanda tsarin rayuwa ne waɗanda za su iya ba da haske game da hanyoyin da ke gudana a matakin salula. Wadannan hanyoyin ilimin halitta na roba don gano magunguna, wanda aka sani da hakar ma'adinan kwayoyin halitta, sun canza magani.

    Misali na kamfani da ke samar da kwayoyin da ake buƙata shine GreenPharma na Faransa. A cewar rukunin yanar gizon, Greenpharma yana ƙirƙirar sinadarai don masana'antar harhada magunguna, kayan kwalliya, aikin gona, da kuma masana'antar sinadarai masu kyau a farashi mai araha. Suna samar da kwayoyin halitta kira na al'ada a gram zuwa matakan milligrams. Kamfanin yana ba kowane abokin ciniki wani mai sarrafa aikin da aka keɓe (Ph.D.) da tazarar rahoto na yau da kullun. Wani kamfani na kimiyyar rayuwa wanda ke ba da wannan sabis ɗin shine OTAVAChemical na tushen Kanada, wanda ke da tarin ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta biliyan 12 da ake buƙata akan buƙatun gini dubu talatin da halayen gida 44. 

    Tasirin kwayoyin da ake buƙata

    Faɗin abubuwan da ke tattare da ƙwayoyin da ake buƙata na iya haɗawa da: 

    • Kamfanin kimiyyar rayuwa yana saka hannun jari a cikin basirar wucin gadi da ML don gano sabbin kwayoyin halitta da abubuwan sinadarai don ƙarawa cikin bayanansu.
    • Ƙarin kamfanoni masu samun sauƙin samun dama ga ƙwayoyin da ake buƙata don ƙarin bincike da haɓaka samfura da kayan aiki. 
    • Wasu masana kimiyya suna kira ga ƙa'idodi ko ƙa'idodi don tabbatar da cewa kamfanoni ba sa amfani da wasu ƙwayoyin cuta don bincike da haɓaka ba bisa ƙa'ida ba.
    • Kamfanonin Biopharma suna saka hannun jari sosai a cikin ɗakunan binciken su don ba da damar buƙatu da injiniyan microbe a matsayin sabis ga sauran kamfanonin fasahar kere-kere da ƙungiyoyin bincike.
    • Ilimin halitta na roba wanda ke ba da izinin haɓaka mutummutumi masu rai da nanoparticles waɗanda zasu iya yin tiyata da isar da magungunan ƙwayoyin cuta.

    Tambayoyi don yin tsokaci akai

    • Menene wasu yuwuwar amfani da kwayoyin da ake buƙata?
    • Ta yaya kuma wannan sabis ɗin zai iya canza bincike da haɓaka kimiyya?

    Nassoshi masu hankali

    Shahararrun hanyoyin haɗin gwiwa da cibiyoyi an yi nufin wannan fahimtar: